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Farming

NFU’s NVZ challenge fails

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NFU Cymru’s judicial review of the Welsh Government’s decision to introduce new water quality regulations across the whole of Wales has been dismissed, following a judgment handed down last week.


The Judge, Sir Wynn Williams, found that the Welsh Government had not acted unlawfully in making the water quality regulations, having heard the parties’ arguments during a virtual hearing spread over three days towards the end of last year. In particular, the Judge concluded that farmers did not have a ‘legitimate expectation’ that an 80% grassland derogation that applies in England and Northern Ireland would be available to them under the regulations.


NFU-Cymru described the outcome as an “incredibly disappointing result for Welsh farmers as it means that the new water quality regulations, which came into force across Wales on 1st April 2021, will remain in place in their current form.” NFU Cymru believes that these regulations are unworkable and pose a significant threat to the economic viability of Welsh farming, the overall impact of which cannot be underestimated. NFU argue the regulations make the whole of Wales an NVZ, attracting disproportionate requirements which will be detrimental to the whole farming sector.


NFU Cymru President Aled Jones said: “I am obviously very disappointed with today’s judgment, but I am proud that NFU Cymru has been able to stand up for all farmers across Wales to hold Welsh Government to account in its decision-making.

This case was not about seeking to ignore agricultural pollution incidents or trying to reduce environmental protection; it was about ensuring that when the government makes decisions that impact the Welsh farming industry, it does so based on a proper assessment and understanding of those impacts. 

“I hope that the arguments raised during this case will have made the Welsh Government take notice of the impact these regulations will have on Welsh farmers, and we will continue to look for opportunities to find ways to reduce the burden on farmers.


“A good starting point would be for Welsh Government to increase the support offered to farmers in order to be able to comply with these regulations. Welsh farmers face having to find up-front costs of £360 million and ongoing yearly costs of £14 million a year. 

“The package of support to farmers to make these drastic changes is, in our view, woefully inadequate and I hope that Welsh Government will increase the existing funding available to support farmers in complying with the regulations. “Unfortunately, we are already aware of farming families leaving the industry as a direct consequence of the regulations.


“Despite the ultimate outcome of the case, I am extremely proud of the leadership NFU Cymru has shown in being the organisation to take on this legal challenge on behalf of the whole Welsh agricultural industry. “I would like to pay tribute to the dedication and expertise of NFU Cymru staff, the union’s in-house legal team, our legal panel firm JCP, Counsel at Essex Court Chambers and the NFU’s Legal Assistance Scheme in ensuring that the voice of Welsh farming was heard in the High Court.

”Although the Welsh Government promised to review the regulations following a series of knife-edge votes in the Senedd, it also kicked the review into the long grass by placing it way down its list of priorities for examination by Senedd Committees.Plaid Cymru’s spokesperson for agriculture and rural affairs, Mabon ap Gwynfor MS said: “This is a disappointing result for farmers in Wales. “But it doesn’t detract from the fact that questions have been rightly asked of these regulations. 

“Everybody wants to see water quality improve, and where people or businesses are found to be polluting water bodies then they should pay the price. “However, we believe that a blanket approach is not proportionate and will be counterproductive.

“It’s also a shame that the calls for derogation were dismissed, therefore putting farmers in Wales at a disadvantage to other farmers in the United Kingdom. “We’ll continue to work to try and find a more targeted approach to ensure that water pollution by the agricultural sector is tackled, and the sector as a whole is not penalised as a consequence of the actions of a few in certain areas.”

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Farming

Red clover plays important role in reducing livestock farm’s input costs

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PROTEIN-RICH red clover is helping a Welsh livestock farm achieve a total cost of production of less than £3/kg deadweight in its lambs.

Dafydd and Glenys Parry Jones have been farming organically at Maesllwyni since 2001, running a flock of 700 Texel and Aberfield cross ewes and 60 Hereford cross cattle on the upland holding near Machynlleth.

Red clover has been a key component in their system since then, and increasingly so – in the last three years cattle have been fattened solely on it and lambs spend their last two weeks before slaughter grazing these leys.

By continually fixing nitrogen and releasing it when grazed and cut, red clover is not only an important source of feed for the livestock at Maesllwyni but for soil health and nutrition too. At a recent Farming Connect open day at the farm, Mr Jones shared the knowledge he has gained from two decades of growing and feeding the crop.

Twenty hectares (ha) are grown within a rotation on 60ha of silage ground where fields are reseeded every 11 years. By favouring varieties including AberChianti and AberClaret, leys have a five year longevity if looked after, including by not grazing in the winter.

The crop is established in May after ploughing. The farm’s top soil layer is shallow therefore only the top 10cm are cultivated.

Oats, barley, peas and vetches are incorporated in the mix. “The arable mix cleans the field up and creates a canopy to keep the weeds down,’’ said Mr Jones.

The silage is mainly fed to pregnant ewes in the last two weeks before lambing.

Red clover seed is established at a depth of just 5mm and the arable silage at 7.5-10cm.

“We just let the arable seed sit on top of the furrows and find that it works fine,’’ said Mr Jones.

Establishment had previously been in July but by getting the seed into the ground in May it gives red clover an advantage in that first year. “The clover really starts to take off in the middle of the summer,’’ said Mr Jones.

The soil is chain harrowed and rolled after seeding. A bulky first cut is taken in June, the forage wilted for 24 hours, and a second, higher quality cut at the beginning of August, with 48-hour wilting.

“We cut the red clover at a young stage for silaging, to prevent the stem becoming unpalatable for sheep,’’ Mr Jones explains.

The first cut is clamped and the second preserved as big bales. A plastic conditioner is used on the mower to decrease leaf damage.

At over 18% protein, it is a protein-rich crop therefore it is established with companion grasses to provide fibre and energy to help retain that protein in the rumen for longer.

“Producing protein is one thing but you need to have something to absorb it,’’ said Mr Jones.

There are other benefits too from plants and herbs included in the mix, he said.

“Trefoil has tannins which help keep livestock healthy and, as our soils are low in copper, chicory helps to bring that mineral up the soil structure.’’

The target analysis for red clover silage is at least 18% protein, metabolic energy (ME) greater than 11, a digestibility (D) value of over 70 and dry matter at more than 30%.

“Clover doesn’t have a lot of sugar in it so I use an additive to help with the ensiling and to quickly get the pH level down,’’ said Mr Jones.

He doesn’t allow red clover to grow too high before turning sheep onto it. “The stem mustn’t get too thick because the sheep don’t like it when it gets to that stage.’’

For grazing, ewes and lambs get priority in the spring, to get lambs fattened and sold, and after 1 July it is cattle that get the first bite.

“We fatten lambs on red clover but not for too long otherwise they get too big and fat,’’ Mr Jones explained. They are grazed for two weeks and then weighed.

No concentrates are fed, largely thanks to the high-quality red and white clover silages and excellent grazing management.

This has helped decrease total cost of production to under £3/kg deadweight in lambs.

“In many systems it is the Single Farm Payment that is the profit but by keeping our costs down the lamb is the profit and the payment is a bonus,’’ said Mr Jones.

Carbon footprint in his lamb system is 11.4kg C02/kg liveweight. Cattle are finished at 20 months – they can achieve daily liveweight gains of up to 1.6kg when grazing red clover.

Soil is regularly sampled – the red clover and herbal ley fields consistently at 6-6.5pH. Healthy soils are important for beneficial insects too, such as the dung beetle, which is adept at recycling nutrients.

Lynfa Davies, Farming Connect Biodiversity Specialist, advised farmers attending the open day that the dung beetle plays a vital role in livestock systems through dung pat management and parasite control.

“Having good populations of dung beetles is a ‘win win’ as it reduces parasite loads as well as getting nutrients underground to feed that next flush of grass, and they also provide feed for other wildlife and birds,’’ she said.

Good populations of dung beetles also help reduce greenhouse gas emissions from livestock production as they draw faecal matter down into the soil. They are very vulnerable to anthelmintics, in particular ivermectins.

Ms Davies said, treating animals that have a proven parasite burden, by using faecal egg counting to establish worm levels, will promote and preserve dung beetle populations.

Grazing livestock all the year round is beneficial too as different species of dung beetle are prevalent at different times of the year.

“It doesn’t have to be prime cattle, perhaps some youngstock or sheep,’’ said Ms Davies. “If there are farms in the locality that have stock in fields all the year round that will help too.’’

The open day was facilitated by Farming Connect Red Meat Sector Officer Owain Pugh.

He said the Jones family were demonstrating how important crops like red clover were in reducing inputs.

“The image of Welsh farming is very important now and will be even more so in the future and cutting out proteins with high carbon footprints such as soya is paramount,’’ he said.

A number of projects trialling systems for reducing inputs are being carried out on the Farming Connect Our Farms network.

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Farming

Meet the winners of Pembrokeshire County Show 2023

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THE PEMBROKESHIRE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY has said that it would like to thank all those who supported this year’s event with competitor numbers up on the previous year as well as a significant increase in the number of trade stands and ticket sales.

The Society has praised the hard work of the huge army of volunteers, sponsors and exhibitors, without whom it would not have been possible to hold the Show.

Brian Jones, Pembrokeshire County Show President, said, “Thank you to everyone who came and supported the Show. We were certainly blessed with two days of glorious weather which I’ve no doubt helped in bringing the crowds to the showground. All the rain we had had prior to the show certainly made parking a challenge on day one but we must thank everyone for their patience as we found alternative solutions. Planning now begins for the 2024 event!”

Award winners at this year’s Pembrokeshire County Show included:

Baron de Rutzen Award Those under the age of 45 who farm in Pembrokeshire and could demonstrate their farm’s use of the latest technological methods to promote progressive, sustainable agriculture were encouraged to enter the prestigious Baron de Rutzen Award. The winners were Mark and Caroline Davies of Little Newcastle, Haverfordwest. They milk 230 pedigree Holsteins through a fully automated system. They rear their own replacements and also have a small beef enterprise. The farm is all grassland and they follow a strict reseeding and liming policy to optimise the yield from their multi-cut silage system. The couple place significant emphasis on animal health, husbandry and breeding to maximise the efficiency of their system.

Student Bursary Award was awarded to Lottie Wilson from Hayscastle. The £1,000 bursary is open annually to all qualifying students studying agriculture, veterinary science, agricultural engineering, food technology, forestry or other subjects clearly allied to agriculture. Lottie is currently studying agriculture at the University of Nottingham. When she’s at home she is a general dairy farm worker as well as a lambing hand and a calving beef herd assistant. In 2021 she was the top agriculture student at Hartpury College.

Ambassador for 2024 to help support officeholders in promoting and meeting the aims of the Society. During the show, the role was awarded to Ffion Edwards, a nurse, from Maenclochog. She has enjoyed many many years of attending the county show and believes that there are so many good elements to it. Ffion has been a member of Llysyfran YFC for 15 years and enjoys every aspect of young farmers – trying new experiences, competing and travelling to name a few.

Long Service Award – Farm and estate workers from Pembrokeshire, who have been employed on the land for 25 years or more, could be nominated for this Award. There were two recipients for the inscribed Awards: Darran Davies from Scleddau, Fishguard and Richard Davies from Treffgarn Owen, Haverfordwest.

The next event to be held on the Showground will be the Christmas Fair which takes place on Sunday, 10 December between 10am and 4pm. There will be gift and craft stalls, food and drink, festive music and a Santa’s Grotto. Admission is Free.

The date has been set for Wales’ largest county agricultural show, Pembrokeshire County Show in 2024. The event will take place on 14 and 15 August at Pembrokeshire County Showground in Haverfordwest.

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Farming

Director for Rural Affairs visits Welsh project farm

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AS THE BRO CORS CARON SMS project comes to an end, we were fortunate to have a visit to Cruglas Farm from the Welsh Government’s Director for Rural Affairs, Gian Marco Currado. Responsible for the team devising the Sustainable Farming Scheme (or SFS, the future Welsh agri-environment scheme due in 2025), Mr Currado had visited the project area to learn more about the work of Terry Mills at Cruglas Farm and of the wider Bro Cors Caron Farmer Cluster; the research of the GWCT relating to sustainable land management; and to hear from the Welsh farmers involved with the project.

The day started with a tour around Cruglas Farm, a beef and sheep farm owned by Terry Mills who has spent 30 years creating a haven for wildlife. The habitat creation includes the establishment of extensive hedgerows and wooded areas across the farm, with 42 different tree species.

A key element of the future SFS is tree planting, which has resulted in numerous discussions surrounding how tree planting could be implemented through the scheme to ensure that tree cover increases in Wales, but without impeding food productivity and the profitability of Welsh farms. GWCT Wales have, along with most farmers in Wales, expressed reservations about a blanket approach and highlighted several measures that could be adopted to ensure a more proportionate approach and potentially increase the scheme uptake amongst the farming community. GWCT would like at least some hedges be included in the tree planting quota and with GWCT’s recently developed hedgerow carbon code we can measure the carbon stored within each hedgerow. We would like to see trees planted in the right place, so they don’t remove productive land from food production; don’t disadvantage nature while meeting the desired outcome of continuous suitable woodland. GWCT would also like to see the multiple benefits of hedgerows for wildlife and livestock farming, including biosecurity, and their ability to store carbon.

In addition to habitat creation, management practices traditionally related to game management that Terry uses were discussed. Terry Mills carries out predation management and overwinter supplementary feeding on Cruglas, and these practices have now been implemented on a wider scale across the Bro Cors Caron Farmer Cluster within the SMS scheme. We were able to explain these measures on the tour around Cruglas, highlighting the research conducted by the GWCT at the Allerton Project showing the importance of these management practices for threatened farmland species and their potential for inclusion in the new SFS.

Farmers in the Bro Cors Caron Farmer Cluster discussed sustainable land management, where profitable food production, functioning ecosystem services and thriving local wildlife can all co-exist, alongside strong rural communities and a resilient Welsh language. The achievement of these goals requires cooperation and trust between Welsh Government and farmers and a flexible and adaptable agri-environment scheme which values and takes into account the knowledge of Working Conservationists on the ground.

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