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Fighting pests with predators



Tiny but lethal to soft fruit crops: T he western flower thrip.

Tiny but lethal to soft fruit crops: T he western flower thrip.

WELSH soft fruit and ornamental flower growers are drafting in insect predators to control pests the natural way.
The horticulture industry aspires to achieve zero pesticide residues on fruit and vegetables and that means using nature’s own controls.
During a Farming Connect Knowledge Transfer Event at Springfields Fresh Produce, Manorbier, growers were given expert advice on this approach, known as Integrated Pest Management (IPM), by ADAS soft fruit and ornamental plant adviser, Chris Creed. It was also an opportunity to share their own experiences and ideas.
IPM seeks to manage pests and diseases without damaging the environment and beneficial organisms.
Nick and Pat Bean have been growing horticulture crops at Springfields for 30 years and only use sprays to combat pest infestations as a last resort. “We don’t use any conventional pesticides during harvesting. To achieve that you need to know the lifecycle of the pests you are fighting against and understand the physiology of your crops,’’ explained Nick, who grows daffodils, soft fruit and asparagus.
“You have to anticipate what is going to come in and be prepared to do everything at the right time.’’ Nick and Pat use pheromone and coloured sticky traps as an advanced warning of pest levels.
The majority of growers embrace IPM as they recognise it as the right approach. Government directives are also designed to ensure conventional pesticides are only used when other approaches have failed, directives enforced by auditors.
“It is nothing more complicated than good crop hygiene and husbandry,’’ said Nick.
For those who use chemical sprays to control pests and disease, natural biological pesticides are available.
There are multitudes of pest species intent on damaging crops in Wales but among the worst is the Western flower thrips. This prolific pest is resistant to all pesticides and was responsible for destroying hundreds of acres of strawberries last year.
Chris Creed recommends using predators, in the case of Western flower thrips, Neoseiulus cucumeris, to eat the insects as they hatch. “On the farms I work with, we introduce 25 predators per plant every two weeks which reflects how serious this problem is and it has been quite a success story,’’ he said.
It takes time, often a month, for predators to establish on the crop before they control the pest. “Patience is therefore important” said Mr Creed.
The Western flower thrips is among five main pest species which attack the flowers of developing fruit and vegetables. The others are the capsid bug, pollen beetle, British thrips and blossom weevils.
Mr Creed recommended encouraging wild predators, which can be very tolerant to pesticides within IPM programmes. This could mean introducing background plants such as nettles which provide habitat and food for these predators. Mr Creed also advises using plant varieties which are resistant to pests.
Regular crop inspections should be carried out through the growing season. “Either monitor the crops yourself or use an agronomist,’’ advised Mr Creed. “There should be a lot of crop walking and checking and making key decisions.
“It may be that if you spot red spider mites in March you use a pesticide then because predators don’t work when the temperature is under ten degrees Celsius. Predators can then be introduced in May.’’
Mr and Mrs Bean regard membership of organisations such as the Horticultural Development Council is essential for keeping them up to date on new pests and diseases and control methods.
“There is huge value in knowing what is going on in the industry, it is important not to be isolated. We are on our fifth system of growing strawberries here and it is by attending events like this organised by Farming Connect where we can exchange information that has allowed us to do that.’’
The Farming Connect event at Springfields Fresh Produce was facilitated by Jamie McCoy.

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NSA Lambing List closes



AS A much-valued service to its members, the National Sheep Association’s (NSA) Lambing List provides farmers with a place to advertise for much-needed lambing assistance from students and others seeking work experience each year.

The list annually provides an annual matchmaking service for around 400 farmers and veterinary and agriculture students. And despite a second lambing season under the constraints of Covid-19 restrictions the list has once again successfully helped farmers across the UK at this busy time of year.

The list has now closed and will reopen for advertisements for the 2021/2022 lambing season in the Autumn.
 NSA Communications Officer Katie James says: “The popularity of the NSA Lambing List grows each year.
“The guidance it provides to farmers using it and the links it offers students means it is incredibly valued by all parties involved. For most, the past two lambing seasons have taken place during Covid-19 restrictions meaning potential shortages of staff due to travel constraints or illness from the virus itself and additional measures to consider such as separate accommodation for temporary staff and social distancing.

“All at NSA are therefore pleased that the list has been able to help remove some of these concerns and provide a trusted method of securing extra help for its sheep farming members.”

 In a previous survey of NSA members using the list, more than 90% of respondents said they valued the list and would use it again to try and source additional lambing help from veterinary and agriculture students.

 Students who will be looking for work experience to assist their application to university or as part of ongoing veterinary studies are encouraged to consult the list from November 2021 when it becomes available once again to aid the student/farmer matchmaking.

NSA members will be able to add details of their available placements for their next lambing season from October.

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MPs urge level playing field



IN its new report—Seafood and Meat Exports to the EU—the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (EFRA) Committee expresses urgent concerns for exporters of highly time-sensitive fresh and live seafood and meat shipments to the EU, particularly small and medium-sized businesses.
Despite overcoming initial “teething problems” the new barriers small seafood and meat export businesses face could render them unviable, and factories and jobs may relocate to the EU.
The Committee’s report, therefore, calls on the Government to ease burdens, including:

• as a matter of priority, seeking agreement with the EU on digitising the certification of paperwork such as Export Health Certificates
• taking a flexible approach to the compensation fund for seafood exporters—including reconsidering the cap of £100,000 on individual payments, and providing similar support to meat exporters
• providing the same help to small meat and seafood businesses with the costs of extra red tape for exports to the EU as they can receive for moving goods to Northern Ireland
• establishing a ring-fenced fund to help create new distribution hubs, which allow smaller consignments to be grouped into a single lorry load, so reducing transport costs.

The Committee criticises the fact that controls on EU seafood and meat imports will not commence until 1 October 2021, with checks at the border only commencing from 1 January 2022.
This has placed British businesses at a competitive disadvantage and reduced the incentive on the European Commission to negotiate measures that would lessen the burdens facing British producers.
The report finds that adhering to the revised timetable will be ‘crucial’, to ensure food safety and to create a regulatory level playing field.
Neil Parish MP, Chair of the EFRA Select Committee, said: “British businesses have acted with incredible agility and perseverance to adapt to the new processes for exporting meat and seafood to the EU.
“With the many checks causing delays and costs, this hasn’t been easy. We are concerned that in the absence of equivalent checks for imports from the EU to Great Britain, there will be serious long-term repercussions for our producers.
“As it stands, the playing field is not even, and the Government must ensure that the new timetable to introduce import checks is adhered to.
“Even as “teething problems” are sorted, serious barriers remain for British exporters, and it is now imperative that the Government take steps to reduce these.
“It must be pragmatic in seeking an agreement with the EU to reduce the red tape that harms both sides, and in the meantime, crack on with giving practical support to small British businesses to sell their produce abroad.
“By the end of the year, the Government must have developed a digital system for certifying EHCs for imports from the EU, enabling it to then negotiate a reciprocal arrangement.”

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Cattle prices exceed averages – and expectations



BEEF cattle prices in England and Wales have hit the milestone of £4 per kilo, making this average the highest on record in a number of years.

The average deadweight price for steers for the week ending 24 April was 401.4p per kg which is 83p higher than this time last year and 67p above the five-year average.

Market prices at present are being influenced by a number of unique factors, including strong UK domestic retail demand, a lack of supply due to stockpiling in late-2020 ahead of the Brexit deadline, and changes in trade patterns caused by both Brexit and the Covid pandemic.

Whilst the impact of these factors on demand for beef in 2021 is unpredictable, newly released data from the British Cattle Movement Service (BCMS) suggests that no radical shift is likely in the supply of animals over the coming months.

During 2020, total calf registrations in GB were up marginally (0.5%) on 2019. In Wales, the figures show an increase of 1.4% in beef calf registrations, whilst dairy calf numbers increased by 3.2% on the year. For 2021 so far, beef calf registrations are currently trending 1.1% below last year.

Glesni Phillips is a Data Analyst at Hybu Cig Cymru – Meat Promotion Wales (HCC). She said: “As we approach the peak calving period for spring calving herds in Wales, it is expected that BCMS monthly registration figures will increase over the coming months.

“However, the suckler cow herd in the UK has been retracting in recent years and currently, it shows no signs of re-building quickly. Prime heifer slaughterings during 2020 and the first quarter of this year, for instance, are higher than recent historic levels.

“These figures would suggest that supply onto the domestic UK market will likely remain tight for some time. Domestic retail figures for beef are strong, and with barbeque season coming up we should continue to see good demand  for good quality, locally produced beef.”

A more detailed analysis of the BCMS calf registrations data is available in HCC’s latest Market Bulletin on the HCC website.

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